Termites 101 – Know Your Enemy

Recyclers of the forests and jungles, termites provide a service to mankind and the rest of the living world. Termites eat wood, dead wood, not living trees. Microorganisms in their digestive systems break down wood-cellulose into the component glucose which can be used as fuel in termites muscles. Termites are part of the cycle of nature that make this world such a miraculous place.

Termites and Ants

Despite numerous similarities, there are distinctions between termites and ants. Ants have a “wasp waist” between their thorax and their abdomen; termites do not. In termites, the head, the thorax and the abdomen appears as a continuous, but increasing width from front to back. Ants do not specialize in wood consumption as termites do.

Termite Societies

Each colony of termites has a large queen termite who lays the eggs and thus provides for a continuation of the colony. One or more males hang around to provide fertilization of the eggs produced by the queen. They have little else to do, but they are necessary.

Most of the colony are female workers who scurry around to maintain the nest and eat the wood that provides the nourishment for the rest of the colony. In addition to getting food for themselves, they feed the queen, the males, the soldiers, for the vast population of larvae from which the future generations of queens, males, workers, and soldiers will come. Yes, there is a professional military in many termite colonies, soldier termites with large sharp mandibles and strong head structures necessary for their military duties.

The Different Kinds of North American Termites

In America there are four kinds of termites, drywood, dampwood, subterranean, and Formosan. Most widespread are the subterranean termites which live in the ground near a wooden structure and develop enclosed passageways into the structure. There these termites work under the surface of wooden components which are weakened as the wood is invisibly devoured. Less than a hundred years ago some foreign invaders, Formosan termites came to Texas and spread throughout the Southern States. These Formosan termites are much more diligent than our home grown subterranean termites, and they are therefore more damaging to wooden structures in the United States.

Drywood termites are the kind that live within a piece of furniture. They somehow get enough water from the wood itself to support their life. You might buy an antique and unknown to you it is infested with drywood termites. Once in your home, these can spread to other items of furniture, or the structural wood of your home.

Dampwood termites are the kind of big termites that inhabit the fallen logs in the forests of northern California and the Pacific Northwest. They recycle the fallen wood and provide for nourishment for the next generation of forest growth.

These American termites are a minor representation of the world-wide termite population. Jungle areas produce more wood and they have produced many varieties of termites. Many of these jungle termites have much more complex habitations than the termites in the temperate United States.

The Termite Life Cycle

The queen lays the eggs. Queens are much larger than the mature worker termites in the next. The extended abdomen of the queen termite is an egg factory that keeps going and going. The eggs are carried away by the worker termites to hatching chambers in the termite nest and they are cared for as they are maturing. The males fertilize the female, injecting the sperm into the ovaries, so that the eggs are ejected from the queen already fertilized and developing.

When the eggs hatch they become larvae which need nourishment and tending. In the earliest stages of a colony the queen might feed the larvae, but as the colony gets larger, the workers perform to these functions. After some period of growth the larvae go into the pupae stage where they are transformed into adult termites.

A few of the pupae will emerge as female future queens and fertile males. These will mature with wings and will swarm off to become new couples founding a new colony of termites in another location.

Most of the pupae will emerge as workers to increase the viability of their mother and her mate. These workers adapt to a host of assignments in or near the nest. They scurry around appearing to have some task or another at all times. Still other pupae will emerge as soldiers fully equipped and designed to defend the colony.

Termite Nests and Colonies

As indicated above, there are many kinds of termites world-wide and they have different kinds of dwellings. All termites need wood and water. Take away their supply of either of these and the termites will disappear. All termites prefer isolation from the rest of the world. They like enclosed space and protected passageways.

Many species termites will dwell in the ground, establishing elaborate chambers in loose earth for housing the larvae and eggs. These underground termite nests will have to be close to a supply of wood and they will often have covered passageways between the wood and the living quarters. If subterranean termites find enclosed empty space, they might extend their nest outside the ground area, constructing nests of soil mixed with wood they have processed into a paper like substance.

In Central America and elsewhere large termite nests will be mounted in trees. The termites in the nest will be protected from their predators on the ground, but they have to go down the tree trunk to the food supply on the forest floor.

In Africa, Australia, and other tropical places termites might erect substantial structures, some of them of cement-like materials which the worker termites have processed. Here, numerous queens give rise to millions upon millions of termites in a single colony. These termite nests are substantial structures several meters high and several meters in circumference. In Southeast Asia one such structure had a resemblance to Buddha, and was venerated by the local human worshippers.

The Size of Termites

The newly hatched larvae and even freshly emerging adults are often quite small. As these adult, workers and soldiers, will increase in size. When fully grown such adult workers and soldiers may be Ľ inch in length up to ľ inch. For example, the dampwood termites in Northwest United States might be of the larger type, while the subterranean termites might be in the smaller range. The mature queens in almost all species may be two or three inches in length, most of that being the egg producing abdomen. The males will be larger than the workers, but definitely smaller than the queens.

Swarms of Termites

Many species of termites will go through a mating ritual which becomes visible. Newly matured queens and males will have wings and they will swarm together, the females anxious to find a suitable male with which to mate. When such a match is made, the two will fly off together and establish a new home, maybe in the soil, maybe in fallen log, depending the species and type of termite. This swarming behavior may be the most visible to humans that termites become. Generally, termites want to be invisible, since there are many other insects, birds, bats and other creatures which would like to dine on a termite meal.


Humans will do well to watch for the signs of termite infestation. This may take the form of a strange line appearing on a stone or concrete foundation of a human habitation. When such a line appears, the owners of the house should not ignore it. They should follow the line to where it enters the house. Some of the wood in a dwelling might be more tasty than other types of wood. The writer remembers following such a line in a home in New Jersey. Sure enough it led to a piece of pine wood which was infested by termites.

Termite Prevention

Termite baiting and staking are common methods of control. This involves providing some attractant materials that will lure the worker termites into a place where they will pick up some slow-acting poison. The workers carrying poison will carry it back to the colony and infect the entire group, including the queen, the males, and the soldiers.

To make this procedure work, it might be advisable to plant several stakes around your dwelling in order to find where the termites are and where they are not.. Professional termite control workers can help a lot in planning such a campaign for the protection of your house and other buildings.

Other methods of termite control involving fumigating the soil all around the the buildings in order thoroughly prevent subterranean and Formosan termites from invading any of your buildings.

Termite Tenting and Fumigation

Suppose your house and furniture are completely infested with drywood termites. You may want to fight back with tenting. It is called tenting because your entire house will be covered with a huge plastic tarp. A poison gas is going to be released inside this enclosure. The gas will penetrate every nook and cranny. When the house has thus been fumigated for a couple of days, all the termites will be dead, dead, dead. You will want to remove the fish in the aquarium and any other living things in the house, including you and the kids.

Different Ways to Get Rid of Termites

Getting rid of termites can take a lot of time and effort but ignoring the problem will just lead to more extensive damage to your home. There are many things you can try to do before having to call a professional. Below is a simple list of termite control techniques you can do on your own.

Liquid Treatments

Liquid termite treatments can be sprayed around your home to kill any existing termites as well as kill termites that come into contact with the ones that were sprayed. Termite baits are great for slowly killing off a colony of termites that may be infesting your home.  There are also liquids that mix in with water and kill off termites in and around your home.

Some termite control treatments you can do on your own, while more agressive chemicals require a licensed professional.

Termite Baits

Baits actually leave small amounts of pesticides so that the termites who come in contact with it actually bring it back to their colony and kill off other termites.

Borate termite treatments are more like a coat of paint that is put around the wood in your home usually done while the house is being built.

Termite Stakes

Termite bait stakes are also a great way to both detect and rid your home of termites. You simply stick the stake into the ground around your home and there is an indicator that tells you if termites are in fact surrounding your home. The bait kills any termites that are detected.

Where to Find Termite Control Supplies

All of these products are available online as well as in select retail locations and they are considerably cheaper than having to call a professional in to control your termite issue.

Termite Fumigation

Fumigation is what is done when you call a professional but it is not always able to kill termites there are some species of the that it does not work on.

Steps to Prevent Termite Problems

Some tips to keep them away or keep them from coming include covering any places where stuco, drywall or paint may be chipped, cracked or peeling. All a termite needs is a very small point of entry, it really doesn’t take much. Cover cracks near vents, windows, and roof siding.

Keep your gutters and crawl spaces free of dirt and debris because termites use this as food which in search of new places to eat. If you have to store mulch, firewood, or even wood chips be sure to always store them away from your home to avoid creating a moisture filled environment in which termites will continue to live and just reproduce.

Be sure to watch out for wet wood. Wet wood is easy for termites to chew through. Termites favor easy food sources and constantly wet wood is just an invitation for them to infest that area.

Know When to Call a Professional Exterminator

If you have tried all the do-it-yourself pest control methods and you still have termite problems than it is best to try to have a professional solve your problem.

How to Choose a Termite Extermination Company

Understanding Your Problem

Whenever you are hiring an outside expert to solve any problem, it is always important to have at least some understanding of the basics of the problem on your own so that you can be sure that the work is done right and at an appropriate cost. In the case of a termite infestation, it is common to feel a certain amount of anxiety concerning the prospect of serious damage to your property and to rush out and hire a termite extermination company immediately. However, the best medicine for these types of fear, and you will feel much more in control of your problem if you simply spend some time researching termites and getting a rough idea of how extensive of an infestation you might be dealing with. Even if it turns out that you have a serious termite problem, you will find yourself able to have an intelligent conversation with the exterminator over your treatment options as opposed to feeling that you are entirely at their mercy for a problem that you do not properly understand.

Discuss Termite Extermination Options with Multiple Companies

Once you have collected enough information to understand what you are dealing with, it is time to start taking the problem on. The first step is to obtain multiple consultations from termite extermination companies for different treatment options that they recommend. Unless you have a very serious termite problem, you will likely find that the different termite exterminators offer a wide range of different treatments, some of which are more involved than others. Once you have a handle on the different courses of action that the exterminators recommend, you can continue to your research and decide which treatment makes the most sense for you. This will probably narrow down your potential termite extermination company down to just a few options.

Check References and Reviews of the Companies

Unfortunately, not all termite extermination companies were created equally, and you are much better off going with a company that will get the job done right the first time then by simply choosing the lowest priced quote you can find. Most companies should be able to provide with some references from customers that you can contact, as well as other information that you can take into consideration, such as how long they have been in business and the size of their operation. You may also be able to find service reviews from previous customers through internet forums and local product and service review sites. Once you have learned a little bit about the reputation of the termite extermination company that offers the most sensible extermination service, you will feel confident in trusting that you have made an informed choice in finding an expert to tackle your termite infestation.

What Do Termites Look Like?

Finding insects in your home is a very unpleasant experience. Since most people don’t know what a termite looks like when they start seeing little ant-like bugs they often worry that they could have a termite infestation.  I mean, really what does a termite look like?  Most people can’t tell if the insects they found are actually termites or just ants.

Luckily, it is easy to tell the difference between the two pests. It can be done simply by inspecting their body parts. In most cases, you won’t even need a microscope or a magnifying glass! So what do termites look like?  There are three differences to look for when inspecting the bug.

Body Parts

The first thing you’ll notice is that a termite’s abdomen is straight and wide; while an ant’s is very thin and sectioned. Termite’s have only two visible body parts: the head and the body. Everyone knows what ants look like and flying ants are no different. They have three very distinct body parts: the head, abdomen, and thorax.

Shape of Antennae

An ants antennae is very distinct.  They have an elbow in the middle.  Ussuallyl they point out away from the head then point down at the elbow.  A termite’s antennae is very different.  They don’t have a sharp bend. Instead, the antennae just go straight out with a slight curve to them. Also, a termite’s antennae are beaded, while the ant’s antennae have the two segments and sometimes have small club like nobs at the ends.

Keep in mind that the number of segments of an ant’s antennae and the size or absence of a club are both important to correctly identify the type of ant. If flying ants are found in large numbers, you may need to have something done about this pest.

Length of Wings

So you may wonder, what do flying termites look like?  Both king and queen ants and termites have wings. And are easily confused.   They each have four wings (aka: two pairs of wings).  At first glance they may seem to look the same, but a closer inspection will reveal the differences. The wings of a termite are all the same length. On the other hand, the length of the ant’s wings are all different. More specifically, the front wings are longer than the rear wings.

By keeping these three, easy to spot variances in mind, you will be able to successfully tell the difference between ants and termites in and around your home. If in fact the insect you have found is a termite, do not worry right away that you have an infestation. If there seems to be more than a couple termites inside, contact a pest control company to come inspect your home. If you have found winged ants, you most likely have nothing to worry about. Contact a pest control company if you find a multitude of winged ants inside your home and suspect that they have created a colony inside somewhere.

What do termites look like?